Governance, participation, planning and innovation
Urban development requires significant political initiative, political will and capacity for governance to achieve sustainability goals. It also requires processes to be inclusive in relation to various groups and an awareness of the power relations that permeate current and future challenges.
Despite the advantages of urban planning and administration, it can be difficult to obtain support for policies that entail immediate costs with only long-term returns.
While the challenges persist, political and behavioural changes at the public and personal levels are necessary to achieve the required goals – including urban policy that supports more sustainable planning and administration. Such policies should also support innovation and as such encourage companies to invest in new technology and offer consumers affordable and convenient access to changing consumption patterns.
Here public agents are faced with a challenge to develop policy instruments to steer innovations in a sustainable direction. Another challenge is to coordinate with other levels of government and associated stakeholders to implement effective political measures that take account of personal and collective freedoms, while balancing economic dynamism with ecological limitations.